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Energy-Efficient Hybrid Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks


Affiliations
1 Manipal School of Information Sciences (MSIS), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology (MIT), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India
 

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a giant web of tiny sensor nodes for specific monitoring and control purposes. It is becoming increasingly common to see WSN-enabled applications in our daily lives. Sensor nodes in most applications rely solely on battery power to function. To monitor fire and animal life, the nodes are placed in remote areas like forests, and the communication in WSN tends to be multi-hop. In such a scenario, if nodes fail due to battery power depletion, recharging or replacing the nodes' batteries becomes difficult or impossible, resulting in network failure. Efficient energy usage is critical for extending the life of the network and lowering the cost of replacement. This multi-hop communication requires an efficient routing mechanism to send the packets from source to destination. Several methods for efficient routing have been proposed in the literature. Among them, the clustering method is shown to be the most energy-efficient. The cluster head (CH) selection process is crucial in cluster-based approaches since the process of CH selection consumes more energy. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchical (LEACH) and its most recent versions are widely used in practice. However, in LEACH, the CH nodes are chosen at random without considering the leftover energy. This may result in quick depletion of the energy in the randomly selected CH, resulting in network failure. Energy Efficient Hybrid Clustering (EEHC) is the latest derivative and an improved version of LEACH. EEHC selects the nodes closest to the sink as CH. Due to this type of CH selection, the chances of nodes near the sink failing increase. To solve these difficulties, this article presents an Energy-Efficient Hybrid Protocol (EEHP), a technique for WSN that consumes relatively less energy. This protocol employs a novel CH selection mechanism based on how much energy is left and how far the nodes are from the sink. In each round, the nodes with the highest probability of becoming CH are determined by the combination of distance and residual energy. The outcome of this study is compared with the LEACH and EEHC protocols. The simulation results indicate that the proposed EEHP protocol increases the lifetime of the network by at least 3.8 times when compared to the EEHC protocol and by 6.3 times when compared to the LEACH protocol. Thus, the proposed protocol outperforms LEACH and EEHC in terms of enhanced lifespan by reducing consumed energy and routing overheads.

Keywords

Energy Consumption, Energy Efficiency, Multi-Hop Routing, Routing Overhead, Wireless Sensor Networks.
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  • Energy-Efficient Hybrid Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Authors

S Arockiaraj
Manipal School of Information Sciences (MSIS), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India
Krishanamoorthi Makkithaya
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology (MIT), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India
Harishchandra Hebbar N
Manipal School of Information Sciences (MSIS), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India

Abstract


A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a giant web of tiny sensor nodes for specific monitoring and control purposes. It is becoming increasingly common to see WSN-enabled applications in our daily lives. Sensor nodes in most applications rely solely on battery power to function. To monitor fire and animal life, the nodes are placed in remote areas like forests, and the communication in WSN tends to be multi-hop. In such a scenario, if nodes fail due to battery power depletion, recharging or replacing the nodes' batteries becomes difficult or impossible, resulting in network failure. Efficient energy usage is critical for extending the life of the network and lowering the cost of replacement. This multi-hop communication requires an efficient routing mechanism to send the packets from source to destination. Several methods for efficient routing have been proposed in the literature. Among them, the clustering method is shown to be the most energy-efficient. The cluster head (CH) selection process is crucial in cluster-based approaches since the process of CH selection consumes more energy. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchical (LEACH) and its most recent versions are widely used in practice. However, in LEACH, the CH nodes are chosen at random without considering the leftover energy. This may result in quick depletion of the energy in the randomly selected CH, resulting in network failure. Energy Efficient Hybrid Clustering (EEHC) is the latest derivative and an improved version of LEACH. EEHC selects the nodes closest to the sink as CH. Due to this type of CH selection, the chances of nodes near the sink failing increase. To solve these difficulties, this article presents an Energy-Efficient Hybrid Protocol (EEHP), a technique for WSN that consumes relatively less energy. This protocol employs a novel CH selection mechanism based on how much energy is left and how far the nodes are from the sink. In each round, the nodes with the highest probability of becoming CH are determined by the combination of distance and residual energy. The outcome of this study is compared with the LEACH and EEHC protocols. The simulation results indicate that the proposed EEHP protocol increases the lifetime of the network by at least 3.8 times when compared to the EEHC protocol and by 6.3 times when compared to the LEACH protocol. Thus, the proposed protocol outperforms LEACH and EEHC in terms of enhanced lifespan by reducing consumed energy and routing overheads.

Keywords


Energy Consumption, Energy Efficiency, Multi-Hop Routing, Routing Overhead, Wireless Sensor Networks.

References





DOI: https://doi.org/10.22247/ijcna%2F2021%2F210728